## Why bother?

In the following example program below, a sample of discounted payoffs from Monte Carlo process has been hard-coded and two statistical measures are then calculated and printed out.

void MonteCarloProcess() { // process has been producing the following discounted payoffs // for this sample : average = 10.4881, standard error = 1.58502 double discountedPayoffs[] = { 18.5705, 3.31508, 0.0, 3.64361, 0.0, 0.0, 47.2563, 10.6534, 85.5559, 0.0, 30.2363, 0.0, 17.8391, 2.15396, 0.0, 66.587, 0.0, 9.19303, 0.0, 0.0, 24.2946, 29.6556, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 65.926, 0.0, 14.0329, 1.43328, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.37088, 0.0, 2.49095, 21.4755, 36.5432, 0.0, 16.8795, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 19.8927, 11.3132, 37.3946, 10.2666, 26.1932, 0.0, 0.551356, 29.7159, 0.0, 31.5357, 0.0, 0.0, 4.64357, 4.45376, 21.6076, 12.693, 16.0065, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 25.9665, 18.7169, 2.55222, 25.6431, 8.5027, 0.0, 0.0, 29.8704, 0.0, 22.7266, 22.8463, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 4.90832, 13.2787, 0.0, 0.0, 9.77076, 24.5855, 12.6094, 0.0, 0.0, 1.92343, 5.66301, 0.0, 0.0, 13.6968, 0.0, 0.0, 35.2159, 0.0, 8.44648, 7.21964, 0.0, 19.2949 }; // // dump array data into vector std::vector<double> data(discountedPayoffs, std::end(discountedPayoffs)); // // calculate and print mean and standard error double mean = AlgorithmLibrary::Mean(data); double standardError = AlgorithmLibrary::StandardError(data); std::cout << mean << std::endl; std::cout << standardError << std::endl; }

There is nothing fundamentally wrong in this example, but a great deal of it could be done in a bit different manner. The scheme presented in this example offers a chance to explore some modern tools for implementing flexible and configurable C++ programs.

## Chinese walls

Personally, I would prefer to separate data (discounted payoffs) and algorithms (mean, standard error) completely. Ultimately, I would like to have a design, in which a process (monte carlo) is generating results and adding those results into a separate container. Whenever this process is finished, it will send a reference of this container for several entities, which will calculate all required statistics independently.

There are many ways to implement this kind of a scheme, but I have been heavily influenced by delegates stuff I have learned from C#. Needless to say, the equivalent mechanism for C# delegate in C++ is a function pointer. However, instead of raw function pointer I will use Boost.Function and Boost.Bind libraries.

My new design proposal will have the following components :

**AlgorithmLibrary**for calculating different statistical measures. The header file for this contains collection of methods for calculating different statistical measures.**ResultContainer**class for storing processed results and function pointers (boost function) which are sending processed results for further calculations.**StatisticsElement**class for storing a value of statistical measure and function pointer (boost function) for an algorithm, which can be used for calculating required statistical measure.

## Strangers in the night

In the first stage,

**StatisticsElement**object will be created. This object will host a single statistical measure and a pointer to an algorithm (boost function) for calculating this specific measure. By giving required algorithm as a pointer (boost function), the object is not tied with any hard-coded algorithm. In the case there would be a need for another type for algorithm implementation for calculating required statistical measure, the scheme is flexible enough to be adjusted. In the constructor of this class, we are giving this pointer to an algorithm (boost function). Moreover, this object will be indirectly connected with ResultContainer object with a function pointer (boost function). Function pointer (boost function) will be created and binded (boost bind) with the specific method (process) of StatisticsElement object.

In the second stage,

**ResultContainer**object will be created and all previously created function pointers (boost function, boost bind) for processing calculation results will be added into ResultContainer. This object is ultimately being shared with a process. Process will generate its results (double) and these results will be added into container object. When a process is finished, container object method (sendResults) will be called. The call for this method will trigger a loop, which will iterate through a vector of function pointers (boost function) and sending a reference for a result vector to all connected StatisticsElement objects.

Finally, the

**client program**(in this example : main) will request the calculated statistical measures directly from all StatisticsElement objects. It should be stressed, that these

*two objects described above, do not have any knowledge about each other at any point*. ResultContainer is just storing updates from a process and finally sending results "to somewhere" when the processing is over. StatisticsElement objects are processing their own calculation procedures as soon as they will receive results "from somewhere". It should also be noted, that this design actually implements observer pattern, where ResultContainer object is Observable and StatisticalElement objects are Observers.

## Proposal

// ResultContainer.h #pragma once #include <vector> #include <boost\function.hpp> // // class for storing processed results and function pointers // which are sending results for further processing class ResultContainer { private: // container for storing processed results std::vector<double> results; // container for storing function pointers std::vector<boost::function<void (const std::vector<double>&)>> resultSenders; public: // method for adding one processed result into container void addResult(double result); // method for adding one function pointer into container void addResultSender(boost::function<void (const std::vector<double>&)> resultSender); // method for sending all processed results void sendResults() const; }; // // // // StatisticsElement.h #pragma once #include <vector> #include <boost\function.hpp> // // class for storing a value of statistical measure and // function pointer for an algorithm which can be used // for calculating required statistical measure class StatisticsElement { private: // statistical measure double statisticsValue; // function pointer to an algorithm which calculates // required statistical measure boost::function<double(const std::vector<double>&)> algorithm; public: // parameter constructor StatisticsElement(boost::function<double (const std::vector<double>&)> algorithm); // method for processing data in order to // calculate required statistical measure void process(const std::vector<double>& data); // method (overloaded operator) for accessing // calculated statistical measure double operator()() const; }; // // // // AlgorithmLibrary.h #pragma once #include <vector> #include <numeric> // // algorithms library for calculating statistical measures namespace AlgorithmLibrary { // calculate arithmetic average double Mean(const std::vector<double>& data) { return std::accumulate(data.begin(), data.end(), 0.0) / data.size(); } // calculate standard error estimate double StandardError(const std::vector<double>& data) { double mean = AlgorithmLibrary::Mean(data); double squaredSum = std::inner_product(data.begin(), data.end(), data.begin(), 0.0); return std::sqrt(squaredSum / data.size() - mean * mean) / std::sqrt(data.size()); } } // // // // ResultContainer.cpp #include "ResultContainer.h" // void ResultContainer::addResult(double result) { results.push_back(result); } void ResultContainer::addResultSender(boost::function<void (const std::vector<double>&)> resultSender) { resultSenders.push_back(resultSender); } void ResultContainer::sendResults() const { std::vector<boost::function<void (const std::vector<double>&)>>::const_iterator it; for(it = resultSenders.begin(); it != resultSenders.end(); it++) { (*it)(results); } } // // // // StatisticsElement.cpp #include "StatisticsElement.h" // StatisticsElement::StatisticsElement(boost::function<double (const std::vector<double>&)> algorithm) : statisticsValue(0.0), algorithm(algorithm) { // } void StatisticsElement::process(const std::vector<double>& data) { if(algorithm != NULL) statisticsValue = algorithm(data); } double StatisticsElement::operator()() const { return statisticsValue; } // // // // MainProgram.cpp #include <boost\bind.hpp> #include <iostream> #include "AlgorithmLibrary.h" #include "ResultContainer.h" #include "StatisticsElement.h" // void MonteCarloProcess(ResultContainer& resultContainer) { // process has been producing the following discounted payoffs // for this sample : average = 10.4881, standard error = 1.58502 double discountedPayoffs[] = { 18.5705, 3.31508, 0.0, 3.64361, 0.0, 0.0, 47.2563, 10.6534, 85.5559, 0.0, 30.2363, 0.0, 17.8391, 2.15396, 0.0, 66.587, 0.0, 9.19303, 0.0, 0.0, 24.2946, 29.6556, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 65.926, 0.0, 14.0329, 1.43328, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.37088, 0.0, 2.49095, 21.4755, 36.5432, 0.0, 16.8795, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 19.8927, 11.3132, 37.3946, 10.2666, 26.1932, 0.0, 0.551356, 29.7159, 0.0, 31.5357, 0.0, 0.0, 4.64357, 4.45376, 21.6076, 12.693, 16.0065, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 25.9665, 18.7169, 2.55222, 25.6431, 8.5027, 0.0, 0.0, 29.8704, 0.0, 22.7266, 22.8463, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 4.90832, 13.2787, 0.0, 0.0, 9.77076, 24.5855, 12.6094, 0.0, 0.0, 1.92343, 5.66301, 0.0, 0.0, 13.6968, 0.0, 0.0, 35.2159, 0.0, 8.44648, 7.21964, 0.0, 19.2949 }; // // dump array data into vector std::vector<double> data(discountedPayoffs, std::end(discountedPayoffs)); // create vector iterator, loop through data and add items into result container object std::vector<double>::const_iterator it; for(it = data.begin(); it != data.end(); it++) { resultContainer.addResult(*it); } // trigger result processing for all 'connected' statistical element objects resultContainer.sendResults(); } // int main() { // create : function pointer to mean algorithm, statistics element // and function pointer to process method of this statistics element boost::function<double(const std::vector<double>&)> meanAlgorithm = AlgorithmLibrary::Mean; StatisticsElement mean(meanAlgorithm); boost::function<void(const std::vector<double>&)> resultSenderForMean = boost::bind(&StatisticsElement::process, &mean, _1); // // create : function pointer to standard error algorithm, statistics element and // function pointer to process method of this statistics element boost::function<double(const std::vector<double>&)> standardErrorAlgorithm = AlgorithmLibrary::StandardError; StatisticsElement standardError(standardErrorAlgorithm); boost::function<void(const std::vector<double>&)> resultSenderForStandardError = boost::bind(&StatisticsElement::process, &standardError, _1); // // create : result container and add previously created function // pointers (senders) into container ResultContainer resultContainer; resultContainer.addResultSender(resultSenderForMean); resultContainer.addResultSender(resultSenderForStandardError); // // run (hard-coded) monte carlo process MonteCarloProcess(resultContainer); // // print results from the both statistics elements std::cout << mean() << std::endl; std::cout << standardError() << std::endl; return 0; }

## Help

Concerning the actual installation and configuration of Boost libraries with compiler, there is a great tutorial by eefelix available in youtube. For using Boost libraries, there is a document available, written by Dimitri Reiswich. Personally, I would like to present my appreciations for these persons for their great contribution.

Thanks for reading my blog. Have a pleasant wait for the Christmas.

-Mike